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3 different principles of scaler
- 2018-12-03-

1. Piezoelectric ceramic scaler

Using a piezoelectric ultrasonic generator, its working principle is that the crystal of the transducer vibrates with the change of the strength and frequency of the battery, thereby causing linear movement of the tip of the cleaning tooth. It usually has a frequency of 20-30 KHZ and an amplitude of 30 microns.


Low cost, small size and light weight.


The linear motion track causes a certain degree of scratch on the tooth surface, and the patient feels uncomfortable;

The handle is easily damaged: the piezoelectric handle contains crystals, which are usually not used after 300 times of autoclaving. When the piezoelectric handle falls, the ingot inside the handle is easily damaged;

The handle heat is obvious;

Second, the magnetostrictive scaler

Magnetostrictive dental cleaning equipment is characterized by a low frequency of ultrasonic waves, usually in the tens of kilohertz range, but can generate large amounts of radiant power up to several kilowatts. And its mechanical strength is very large, so it is widely used in the field of high-power ultrasonic, it can also be used in the field of low-power ultrasonic measurement or detection technology.

Magnetostrictive ultrasonic instruments rely on different shapes, lengths and types of working ends for linear and elliptical motion at frequencies of 18-42 kHz and amplitudes of 30 microns.

It works like this:

The length of the magnetic transducer in the body of the working head expands and contracts with the change of the direction of the magnetic field, and drives the working tip to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Magnetic transducers are usually composed of sheets of magnetic material such as tantalum.

The working head of the magnetostrictive cleaning device operates in a spiral manner, and relies on the vibration of the side of the machine head to effectively clean the calculus and plaque, thus not damaging the tooth enamel. Under the condition of no anesthetic, the underarm treatment can be completed within 2-3 hours, and the maximum can be deep into the armpit 14mm. It can also be used for sputum scaling and root canal washing.

Since the amplitude of the magnetostrictive cleaning device is small, it can be penetrated into the periodontal pocket for underarm treatment, which will not cause damage to the gums and will not scratch the tooth enamel.


Linear and elliptical movements are possible with less impact on the teeth; patients feel more comfortable during treatment.


The cost is relatively high:

Usually, the cutter head (working tip) of the magnetostrictive transducer is welded to the transducer. When the cutter head is worn, it is necessary to replace the entire transducer, which is uneconomical.

2. There are few types of connected transducer heads (work tips), generally three types:

(1) 90 degree angle ultrasound (removable root canal)

(2) Root circumference treatment work head (for upper sputum treatment and underarm treatment: non-replaceable work head, that is, not available after wear)

(3) Thin wire treatment work head (for underarm scraping and root splitting; can not be replaced, it is not available after wear)

3. During the process of using the handle, the liquid used is easy to enter the handle cavity and the working force is reduced. In this case, the water of the cavity is dried after the one-piece transducer cutter head is removed, thus causing the user to operate. Inconvenience

4. Disabled with a patient or doctor with a pacemaker! (The magnetic field can affect the pacemaker's work)

Third, the sound wave cleaner

In recent years, sonic scalers have been used in many applications. It transfers the energy of the compressed air to the working tip through the transducer, causing the working tip to produce an angular movement of 2500-7000 Hz, which is converted into mechanical energy.


1. The device itself does not produce heat, avoiding accidental damage caused by heat production;

2. Low-frequency, large-amplitude elliptical motion makes the patient feel more comfortable; it is more suitable for underarm operation than ultrasonic instruments;

3. No need for another host, it can work with the air tube of the dental chair;

4. Energy and water spray can be adjusted freely;

5. The metal handle is not easily damaged;

6. The tip of the work can be fiber-optic, which was not possible with previous ultrasound.


There is noise during operation; the cost is relatively high.

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