In recent years, robots have not only been used in the industrial field, but also in dental medical equipment . For example, the famous surgical robot (SurgicalRobot) has only been in existence for 10 years, but it has also made significant progress.
Robots enter the health care field
In fact, a surgical robot is a combination of a set of instruments. It is usually assembled from a surgical instrument such as an endoscope (probe), a knife and scissors, a miniature camera and a joystick. According to foreign manufacturers, the working principle of the currently used surgical robot is the operation through wireless operation, that is, the doctor sits in front of the computer display, carefully observes the lesion in the patient through the display screen and the endoscope, and then passes the robot. The scalpel in the hand accurately cuts (or repairs) the lesion.
This system, named MIS by foreign scientists, is the basis for designing all surgical robots. For example, in the current Da Vinci surgical robot used in hospitals in various countries, as long as a very small hole is opened on the surface of the patient's skin, the probe is inserted into the body, and the position of the patient's lesion can be observed, and then the operation in the robot hand is used. The knife cuts it off.
In addition, surgical robots can also perform very delicate operations such as organ repair, vascular anastomosis or bone grinding. In recent years, surgical robots have been used to perform various important operations including gene transplantation, neurosurgery, and remote surgery, thereby greatly improving the survival rate of critically ill patients.
Due to the increasing use of surgical robots, it is increasingly sold in countries around the world. According to foreign reports, as of the end of last year, the number of surgical robots in the United States ranked first in the world (about 300 units), followed by the United Kingdom (about 80 to 90 units), and South Korea ranked third (37 units).
So far, more than 40 countries including China have various surgical robots. They are all Da Vinci surgical robots produced by Intuitive Surgical of the United States or newly developed surgical robots in Europe. According to reports, European manufacturers independently developed surgical robots five years ago, namely the Zeus surgical robot and the AESOP surgical robot produced by ComputerMotion, which works similarly to the American company's Da Vinci surgical robot.
What is exciting is that the researchers of the Third Military Medical University of China have recently developed a new robotic system for spinal minimally invasive surgery, which can replace the doctor's work under radiation conditions. It can improve the accuracy of surgery and reduce the risk of surgery. It also reduces the damage done to the doctor by radiation. As early as a few years ago, researchers at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics collaborated with the Navy General Hospital to develop a new robot CRAS-BH1 that can be used for remote brain surgery. According to reports, the system has been successfully used in hundreds of brain operations nationwide.
Abdominal surgery robot
Not long ago, researchers at the Institute of Medical Diagnostic Imaging Technology at JIKEI University in Japan developed a pocket abdominal surgery robot. Its maximum size is only 6mm. According to the developer, the abdominal robot is suitable for various intra-abdominal surgery and is also suitable for cardiovascular surgery. The newly developed surgical robot is equipped with a stereo camera, two joysticks and a flexible tube with a diameter of 3 mm (which can be used as an instrument channel). In addition, the surgical robot can also be equipped with equipment such as a 4D ultrasonic imager, which is highly versatile.
A research team at Carnegie Mellon University last year developed a snake-shaped surgical robot (CARDIA-ARM). It has a "snake head" (with a camera and some surgical instruments installed inside).
Its "snake body" is composed of several sections that can be bent freely, with a total length of 300mm. The "snake head" and "snake body" have a diameter of 12mm. According to the developer, the snake-shaped robot is suitable for various vascular operations, especially complex arterial vascular surgery, such as removal of plaques of lipids attached to the inner wall of the artery. As long as a small opening is made in the skin on the chest and inserted into the snake-shaped robot, the operation can be performed, and the patient recovers quickly after the operation.
Knee surgery robot
A research center affiliated with Taiwan's successful university has developed a new type of robot suitable for all kinds of knee surgery. According to reports, human knee bones, muscles and nerves are very compact and complex. When a doctor moves a scalpel on the knee, accidentally it can hurt the nerves or muscles. The knee surgery robot developed by Taiwan University has a parallel-shaped joystick with a hexagonal structure. Under the guidance of software, the robot can perform various complicated knee operations, such as precise grinding of the bone growth part, to restore it. As it is, it can replace the surgeon to do some difficult surgery.
Portable low-cost surgical robot
The price of surgical robots on the market is currently around $1 million per unit. This is a bit unbearable for hospitals in developing countries. In order to develop a popular surgical robot, the researchers of Purdue University's Department of Electronic Machinery, after years of research, finally developed a new type of portable surgical robot, which is priced at only 200,000 to 250,000 US dollars per unit. The market price of surgical robots is 1/4 to 1/5.
It is understood that the newly developed surgical robots from Purdue University are extremely sensitive, and are suitable for high-precision surgery including prostate cancer resection, because various nerves are densely packed near the prostate, and accidental injury can be caused by manual surgery. Nerves, causing adverse consequences such as impotence in patients. The surgical robot's incision is very precise and will never damage the peripheral nerves of the prostate.
Cardiovascular surgery robot
Researchers at the University of Tokyo developed a new robot (C-PORT-FLEXA) for cardiovascular minimally invasive surgery last year.
As we all know, cardiothoracic surgery is difficult, and once the operation is wrong, it is likely to endanger the patient's life. The Japanese medical community's technology in endoscopic surgery is internationally leading. Even so, every day in the Japanese medical community, patients die from cardiovascular surgery, such as coronary artery bypass surgery. The new cardiovascular surgery robot developed by the University of East China is small in size and can accurately perform surgical procedures such as vascular sutures under the guidance of a probe. It is expected that this cardiovascular surgery robot will be put into mass production this year.
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